Nihonto Art | Definitions
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1. KISSAKI: Fan shaped area found at the top of the blade
2. BOSHI: Tempered point found within the kissaki
3. YOKOTE: Line dividing the Kissaki
4. JI: Area between the Hamon and Shinogi
5. HA: Sharp cutting edge
6. HASAKI: Blades Edge
7. SHINOGI: Blade ridge that runs along the mid section
8. SHINOGI-JI: Area found between the Shinogi and Mune
9. HAMON: Temper line
10. HADA: Grain of the steel
11. MUNE: Back ridge that runs parallel but opposite to cutting edge

12. MUNE-MACHI: Back notch of where the Mune meets the Nakago
13. HA-MACHI: Edge notch of where the Ha meets the Nakago
14. YASURI-ME: File marks found on the nakago
15. MEKUGI-ANA: Tang hole
16. MEI: Signature
17. NAKAGO: Tang of the blade
18. NAKAGO-JIRI: Shape and the base of the Tang
19. KINZOGAN MEI: Gold inlay signature usually found on cutting test blades
20. MONOUCHI: Striking area located at the upper portion of the blade
21. NAGASA: Cutting Edge traditionally measured in Shaku
22. SORI: Blade curvature not inclusive of the Nakago


1. Kojiri: Scabbard tip
2. Saya: Scabbard
3. Kurikata: Knob
4. Seppa: Spacers
5. Tsuba: Guard
6. Fuchi: Collar
7. Tsuka: Handle
8. Menuki: Ornaments

9. Sageo: Cord to fasten saya to Pbi
10. Koiguchi: Scabbard mouth or Fitting
11. Mekugi: Peg
12. Same: Rayskin
13. Kashira: Buttcap
14. Sayagaki – Judgement/Opinion of blade inside
15. Kozuka/Kogai: Utility knife/hair tool
16. Tsuka-ito: Handle wrapping

AIKUCHI: koshirae without sword guard (usually found with Tanto)
ANA: Hole (Nakago-Ana, Mekugi-ana)
AOE: Hollylock (used in the Tokugawa family crest, also name of a forging school)
ARA-NIE: Large Nie crystals
ASHI: Lines of Nioi that run downwards towards the cutting edge.
ASUKA: Very early period that spanned from the 6th century until early 8th century
ATO-BORI: Engravings added later that are not original to when the sword was made
ATO-HI: Blood groove added on a later date that are not original to the sword
ATO-MEI: Mei added later that is not original to when the sword was made
AYASUGI-HADA: An intense hada also known as Gassan-hada which looks like waves

BAKUFU: Feudal military Government, Tokugawa Shogunate
BAKUMATSU: Period spanning from 1853 to 1867AD
BAKUMATSU KOSHIRAE: Distinct style fittings from Bakumatsu period
BASHIN: A horse needle somewhat similar in size to a Kogai
BIZEN: Famous forging region of the original Gokagen (1 of the 5 traditions)
BO-HI: Large groove typically found in the shinogi-ji, also referred as blood groove
BOKKEN/ BOKUTO: A wood sword used in practice training
BONJI: Sanskrit engravings (sometimes incorporated with Horimono)
BOSHI: meaning “Hat”, the hamon area of the kissaki
BU: Measurement used when calculating Nagasa length, 1 Bu = 3.03 mm
BUKE: Military class of Feudal Japan
BUSHI: Japanese feudal warrior class, Samurai is referred to
BUSHI-DO: The way of the warrior, moral values Samurai used to govern their life

CHIKEI: Blackish lines that appear in the Ji, a form of Hataraki
CHOJI: meaning Clove, used in reference to many descriptions (Choji hamon)
CHOJI OIL: Clove oil, used for protection of a blade to prevent oxidation
CHOKEN: Parade sword used during Meiji period
CHOKUTO: Straight sword, with little or no Sori
CHU: meaning “Medium”, can be applied in many ways (Chu-Kissaki)
CHU-SAKU: Medium made, (a ranking by Fujishiro)
CHU-JO-SAKU: Superior medium made, (a ranking by Fujishiro)
CHUYA: meaning “day and night”, term usually applied to style of fittings (opposite)

DAI: meaning “Large”
DAIJO: Honorary title, usually found in a smiths Mei
DAI-MEI: Student smith signing his teachers name on work performed by the teacher
DAIMYO: Powerful Feudal lord who Governed his hereditary lands
DAISHO: “Large & Small”, usually referring to Swords or fittings (Daisho Koshirae)
DAITO: Long sword, above Wakizashi in length
DEN: Sword forging tradition, usually used in reference to smith/school- Soshu Den
DOKEN: earliest of weapons appearing in Japan BC.
DOTAN: Earth platform build up for when cutting tests were performed
DOTAN-BARAI: Cut through into the Dotan (used in cutting test inscriptions)
DO: Body, seen on cutting tests (futatsu-do; meaning 2 body)
DOU: Body/ chest armor

EDO: A Period of which the Samurai were the ruling class (1603 to 1868AD)

FUCHI: collar on the hilt (a fitting component usually in paired in style with Kashira)
FUDO-MYOO: Buddhist deities famous in Japanese culture, often as Horimono
FUJISHIRO: Famous polisher ranked as national treasure and created a sword smith ranking system to judge their level of skill
FUKKOTO: swords of Shin-Shinto period produced using methods from mid Koto
FUKURA: cutting edge of the Kissaki, many variations in shape
FUKURE: non-fatal flaw, blister/swelling visible on the surface of a blade
FUKUSA: cloth used to examine a blade
FUNAGATA: Boat shape nakago that bulges out at the Ha-Machi, seen in Soshu work
FUNBARI: characteristic seen in unaltered swords, very wide machi with strong tapering
FURISODE: Nakago type seen on Kamakura work where it tapers upwards
FUTATSU: meaning two, can be applied as Futatsu-do, Futatsu-Bi
FUTO-YASURI: Thick file marks on the nakago

GAKU-MEI: preserved signature framed onto shortened Nakago
GENDAITO: Swords produced by modern smiths using traditional methods
GIMEI: false signature, usually seen on genuine traditionally made swords
GINZOGAN-MEI: Silver inlay signature/ inscription (seen on test cutting swords)
GOJI-MEI: Signature that consist of five characters
GOKADEN: Five major traditions of koto period (Bizen, Yamato, Yamashiro, Soshu, Mino)
GOTO: Famous line of fitting makers
GUNOME: Wave like semi-circular hamon pattern
GUNTO: Military sword issued to soldiers of post Samurai Era

HA: Cutting edge of a sword
HABAKI: metal blade collar that is fastened around the Machi area
HABUCHI: Border area between the Ji and the hamon
HADA: Grain pattern in the steel, indication of the folding method
HADORI: type of polish where the hamon has a whitish finish opposite to Sashikomi
HAGIRE: a fatal flaw that runs perpendicular to the cutting edge
HAITOREI: Meiji Government’s decree bringing an official end to the Samurai class
HAKO-MIDARE: Irregular box shaped hamon
HAMACHI: Notch that starts on the cutting edge that borders the Nakago
HAMON: Tempering line/pattern
HANDACHI: Tachi style mountings typically seen on Katana, sometimes Wakizashi
HATARAKI: activity found along the hamon
HEIAN: a period spanning from 794 to 1185AD
HI: grooves running along blade typically on the shinogi-ji, referred as blood grooves
HIRA-ZUKURI: blade forged without a shinogi or Yokote, completely flat sides
HITATSURA: full tempering where the hamon in dispersed throughout, strong Tobiyaki
HITSU: Opening/ slot on the saya for the Kozuka/ Kogai
HITSU-ANA: Opening on the Tsuba which allows the Kozuka/Kogai to pass
HONAMI: famous family of long time sword appraisers and polishers of the Shogun
HONOKI: Magnolia wood commonly used in shirasaya’s
HORIMONO: Engravings on a sword typically with religious meaning
HOSO-MO: thin/slender blade
HOSO-SUGUHA: narrow straight hamon
HOTSURE: lines of nie which stray away from the hamon

IAITO: sword used for Iaido
ICHI: first or number “One”
ICHIMAI-BOSHI: a fully tempered kissaki
IKARI-KISSAKI: kissaki with large curvature at the point, seen on Nagamaki &Naginata
IKUBI-KISSAKI: Boar neck kissaki where the length of kissaki is less than the height
IMONO: weapon made using cast methods instead of traditionally forged by hand
INAZUMA: form of Hataraki that resembles a bolt of lightening
INOME: heart shape pattern often seen on Handachi/tachi tsuba, resembles boars eye
IORI-MUNE: back ridge of the blade that resembles an arrow point
ISHIME-JI: finishing that appears like the surface of a stone, often seen on fittings
ITAME-HADA: Wood like texture of the grain pattern
ITO: wrapping usually of silk or cotton (tsuka-ito)
ITOMAKI NO TACHI: Tachi that has both the Tsuka and upper sheath wrapped in fabric
ITO SUGUHA: thin string like straight hamon
ITSUTSU-DO: five body cutting

JI: surface between the hamon and shinogi, typically this surface is slightly convex
JI-ARASHI: surface intended to appear rough & somewhat incomplete, seen on fittings
JIDAI: Era, period (Muromachi Jidai)
JIGANE: Visible steel surface, used when indicating type or characteristic of the steel
JI-HADA: Grain pattern of the hada
JINABAORI: Overcoat worn with armor
JINGASA: a light hat/ helmet typically made of iron or leather, usually decorated
JI-NIE: Nie that is visible in the Ji
JI-ZUKARE: a flaw seen by overpolishing where the steel appears worn out
JO: Honorary title
JOJO-SAKU: ranking given by Fujishiro, meaning very well made
JOKOTO: very early Japanese swords prior to koto period
JO-SAKU: superior made, (a ranking by Fujishiro)
JO JO-SAKU: superior superior made, (a ranking by Fujishiro)
JUKA-CHOJI: cohji pattern hamon that resembles compressed cloves overlapping
JUMONJI-YARI: T-shaped Yari
JUTTE: a specific weapon used by police during Edo period, straight in design
JUYO BUNKAZAI: Important Cultural Object (not permitted to leave Japan)
JUYO TOKEN: 2nd highest level of certification issued by NBTHK (important sword)

KABUTO: Helmet worn by Samurai
KABUTO-WARI: Helmet breaker, similar in size to a Jutte but instead has a curvature
KAERI: Hamon along the boshi that has a strong “turn back”
KAI-GUNTO: Naval sword seen before and during WW2
KAJI: A swordsmith, can also be referred to as Katana-kaji
KAIZAN: modification of a signature (often seen on works of Muramasa)
KAKEDASHI: where the hamon reaches the Ha or even fall off the Ha (seen in overpolished swords)
KAKI: fire
KAKU-MUNE: box shape Mune, the top is seen completely flat
KAMAKURA: period spanning from 1185AD to 1333AD, seen by many as the golden age of Sword smithing
KAMI: an Honorary title often seen in signatures
KAMIKAZE: “divine wind”, was a special force of suicide bombers during WW2
KAMON: Japanese family crest, often seen on armor, fittings, lacquer ware
KANJI: Japanese writing (adopted from old Chinese characters)
KANMURI-OTOSHI-ZUKURI: Hybrid construction where the lower portion is Shinogi-zukuri and the upper changes to Shobu-zukuri
KANTEI: Sword study/ appraisal according to the works forging characteristics
KANTEI-KAI: sword study gatherings where views attribute a smith or school to the work while the nakago is hidden
KAO: a persons Seal, often seen on Sayagaki, cutting test, fittings after a signature
KARASUGUCHI: a fatal flaw seen within the kissaki, a crack that runs up from the cutting edge towards the boshi
KARATAKE-WARI: “bamboo splitting”, a cut seen in Tameshigiri / body test cuts where the body is positioned in an upright stance and split in half along the spine
KASANE: Thickness of a blade
KASHIRA: Fitting at the base of the handle (Tsuka base)
KATAKIRIHA-ZUKURI: Sword with one side constructed as Hira-Zukuri and the other is Kiriha-Kukuri
KATANA: a blade with cutting edge measuring over 60 cm, and cutting edge worn facing upwards
KATANA-KAJI: Swordsmith
KATANA-KAKE: Horizontal sword stand, typically 2 tier
KATANA-MEI: Signature on the Omote side of the Nakago (opposite side to the body)
KATATE-UCHI: One handed sword, typically had a shorter Nagasa
KAWAGANE: Outer side steel used when forming the blade structure
KAZU-UCHI MONO: Mass produced swords typically seen during later Muromachi Period
KEN: Straight double edge sword with religious links, seen in fittings & Horimono
KENGYO-JIRI: pointy shaped Nakago base
KENSHI: Swordsman
KENUKIGATA-TACHI: Tachi with old style open exposed Nakago, it is often decorated with gold/silver overlay and an empty carved out center.
KESHO-YASUMINE: Cosmetic file marks on the upper Nakago
KIKUBA: Chrysanthemum pattern hamon
KIKUMON: Chrysanthemum crest, sometimes on lacquering or chiseled in Nakago
KIN: Gold
KINKO: Soft metal fittings
KINPUN-MEI: Attributed smith in gold ovelay lacquer usually applied by appraiser
KINSUJI: straight bright line of Nie appearing within the hamon
KINZOGAN-MEI: Gold inlayed signature commonly seen on cutting test swords
KIRI: Paulownia
KIRIJIRI: straight finish Nakago jiri, sometimes intentional finish, sometimes seen on suriage blades
KIRIKOMI: strike marks on a blade due to fighting, a healthy sword with this is an indication of a well made piece.
KIRITE: sword tester
KIRI-TSUKA: Specially designed oversized tsuka made for cutting tests
KISSAKI: upper fan shaped tip of a sword, usually this area is most susceptible to damage
KISSAKI-MOROHA-ZUKURI: also known as Kogarasu-Maru, a blade that is double edged only for the upper portion, the cutting edge reverts to Iori-Mune style
KITAE: Forging
KIZU: forging flaw on a blade
KO: Small (can be used in reference to components/characteristics, ex; Ko-Kissaki
KOBUSE: sword forged using a 2 layer composition, soft inner core wrapped with a hard outer wall
KODACHI: Small sized Tachi
KODOGU: used to refer to Sword fittings, not including the tsuba
KOGAI: Sword pick accessory sometimes used to arrange hair
KOGARASU-MARU: see Kissaki-Moroha-zukuri
KOGATANA: Knife portion of the Kozuka
KOIGUCHI: Scabbard mouth made from either horn or metal
KOJIRI: Scabbard tip made from either horn or metal (sometimes highly decorated)
KOKUHO: sword that is designated as a National Treasure
KO-MARU: small round Kaeri Boshi
KO-MIDARE: in reference to a small irregular hamon
KO-MOKUME: small wood grain pattern
KO-NIE: very small Nie particles
KO-NIE DEKI: a hamon that is composed of Ko-Nie
KOSHIRAE: mountings for a sword, typically have some level of decoration to them
KOSHIZORI: strong curvature closer to the machi area, mostly seen on Bizen works
KOTO: Old period swords/ works prior to 1600AD

KOZUKA: small utility knife found on the saya, kozuka refers to the upper portion
KUNI: Province
KURIGATA: Notch added to the sheath that has the Sageo passing through it

MACHI: Notches at the base of a blade where the cutting area meets the tang
MACHI-OKURI: shortening of the cutting edge by moving the Ha-Machi & Mune-Machi upwards without shortening the nakago-jiri
MAKIE: Lacquering with silver and gold dust applied into it
MAKIWARA: Rolled straw around a piece of bamboo, used for cutting tests
MARU: Round
MARUBORI-SUKASHI: Round three dimensionally carved sword guard
MARU-DOME: round ending groove that stops near the Habaki area
MARU-GITAE: a blade made using one piece of steel, seen typically on Tanto
MARU-MUNE: Rounded mune (backridge)

MASAME-HADA: Straight forging grain
MASAMUNE NO JITTETSU: the Ten Great Disciples of Masamune
MEI: Signature, typically inscribed by the swordsmith or fittings maker
MEKUGI: peg used to secure the tang inside the handle, made of bamboo or horn
MEKUGI-ANA: Hole in the tang where the mekugi is inserted
MEKUGI-NUKI: a small hammer and pointed tool that is used to remove the Mekugi
MENPO/MEMPO: Samurai’s armored mask
MENUKI: Small decorative fittings in the mid section of each side of the Tsuka
MIDARE: irregular tempering line
MIDARE-KOMI: irregular tempering line in the Boshi
MIHABA: width of a blade at the Machi area
MIMI: rim of a tsuba
MINO: Famous forging region of the original Gokagen (1 of the 5 traditions)
MITOKOROMONO: original made set of Kozuka, Kogai, and Menuki
MITSU-DO: three body test cut performed in Tameshigiri
MITSU-MUNE: three faced Mune
MIZUKAGE: light cloudy line appearing at a 45 degree angle above the Ha-Machi, this is sometimes evidence of a re-tempering
MOKKO: Lobe shaped (typically 4 lobes) used in reference to Tsuba or kamon shapes
MOKUME: Hada (grain pattern) similar to the annual rings of a tree
MOMOYAMA: a period in Japanese history spanning from 1568AD to 1603 AD, falls in to Koto period
MON: Japanese family crest
MONOUCHI: upper cutting/ defense area of a blade, roughly 15 cm from the Yokote
MOROHA: double edge sword
MOTOHABA: blade width at Machi
MOTOKASANE: blade thickness
MUJI-HADA: very tight hada where the gain is not visible
MUMEI: unsigned blade/ work
MUNE: back ridge/spine of the blade
MUNE-MACHI: the notch on the side of the mune that meets the nakago
MUNEYAKI: tempered area along the Mune (hamon on the mune)
MUROMACHI: a period spanning from 1336AD to 1573 (part of Koto era)
MUZORI: straight sword with no Sori

NAGAMAKI: sword, spear like blade with a long wrapped handle, similar to a naginata but with lesser of a Sori
NAGASA: length of the cutting area of a blade
NAGASHI: long parallel lines on the upper nakago just before the machi, added by the polisher and his mark
NAGINATA: a pole-arm weapon where the blade has a strong curvature
NAGINATA-NAOSHI: shortened naginata modified into a sword, sometimes a smith made them intentionally
NAKAGO: tang of a sword/ blade
NAKAGO-JIRI: the bottom end/tip of the tang
NAMBAN-TETSU: foreign steel, imported from few countries that Japan traded with
NANAKO: meaning “roe”, a finishing technique seen on fittings that looks like micro sized dots
NANATSU-DO: seven body cutting test
NANBOKUCHO: a period spanning from 1334AD to 1392 AD (part of koto period)
NARA: a place in Japan and a period spanning from 71AD to 794AD
NASHIJI-HADA: a hada that resembles the flesh of a pear
NBTHK: Nihon Bijutsu Token Hozon Kai, society for preservation of Japanese art swords. They operate a museum and also run a highly regarded shinsa for identifying Shoshin or Gimei works
NEN: year
NENGO: Japanese era name
NIDAI: 2nd generation
NIE: star like particles in the hamon that can be identified clearly
NIE-DEKI: hamon that consists of Nie
NIHONTO: Traditionally made Japanese sword
NIJUBA: double habuchi line parallel to the initial habuchi
NIKU: meat, often used to identify the amount of iron remaining
NIOI: very fine particles of martensite in the hamon that appear cloudy
NIOI-DEKI: hamon that consists of Nioi
NIOIGIRE: Missing part of hamon either by fire of poor tempering
NIOIGUCHI: Border area between the Ji and the hamon
NODACHI: large sized tachi worn by high ranked officials
NOTARE: calm wave like hamon pattern
NTHK: Nihon Token Hozon Kai, society for preservation of Japanese art swords. Like the NBTHK they run a high regarded shinsa for ranking swords
NTHK-NPO: Nihon Token Hozon Kai, society for preservation of Japanese art swords, similar to the NTHK but they run a non-profit organization and also issue certification
NUNOME: Overlay alloy applied to an area on fittings that has been filed so the alloy can properly adhere
NURI: Lacquer

O: Big/ Large (can be applied to words to describe their size, O-kissaki, O-Midare)
OBI: Belt
O-CHOJI: big choji pattern
ODACHI: Large tachi over 90 cm
OMOTE: outer side of a blade opposite to the body, this side typically bears the Mei
ORIGAMI: paper/ certification that has an appraisal of some sort, we see this often by the Honami family
ORIKAESHI-MEI: a signature that has been preserved by being folded over while the tang was being shortened
OSHIGATA: tracing of a blades shape with hand drawn details of the hamon added
O-SURIAGE: A greatly shortened blade where the original tang is completely gone
O-WAKIZASHI: long Wakizashi very close to 60cm
O-WAZAMONO: Great Sharpness swords, 2nd highest ranking for sharpness

RADEN: mother of Pearl (often crushed and applied in lacquer)
RONIN: Samurai without a master
RYO-WAZAMONO: good sharpness swords, 3rd highest ranking for sharpness
RYU: Dragon

SABI: rust, oxidation
SAGEO: cord lacing that is passed through and around the Kurigata
SAIDAN: cut through, often referring to cutting tests,
SAIDAN MEI: Tameshigiri signature, cutting test signature
SAIJO O WAZAMONO: Supreme sharpness swords, highest ranking for sharpness
SAIJO-SAKU: Supreme made, (a ranking by Fujishiro, highest of his rankings)
SAKI: tip
SAKIZORI: blade where the deepest portion of the sori is towards the monouchi
SAKU: made by
SAMEGAWA: skin from a stingray, sometimes referred to as shark skin
SAMURAI: Japanese warrior of pre-Meiji, they were the ruling class before then
SANBONSUGI: three cedar hamon, seen in works from the Kanemoto school
SANDAI: 3rd generation
SANJUBA: triple habuchi line parallel to the initial habuchi
SANMAI: three part forging construction
SASHIKOMI: an old style of polish where the hamon is not highlighted like hadori polish, normally defects are much more visible
SAYA: scabbard
SAYAGAKI: appraisal/ opinion written on the saya in ink, often done by a judge
SAYAGUCHI: Scabbard mouth made from either horn or metal
SEKIGANE: metal filling place on the upper and lower mouth of the tsuba, this provides a tight fitting on the blade without play
SENGOKU PERIOD: warring states period spanning from 1467AD to 1573AD
SEPPA: spacers used on the top and bottom of a sword guard, creates tight fitting
SETSUDAN: Cut through
SHAKU: form of Japanese measurement, 1 shaku measuring 30.3 cm
SHAKUDO: Gold and copper mixture, typically 3 to 5% gold content
SHIBUICHI: Silver and copper mixture, three-quarter copper / one quarter silver
SHIHOZUME: four part forging construction
SHIKOMI-ZUE: walking cane with a hidden sword
SHINAE: small wrinkles due to bending or poor forging
SHINAI: Bamboo sword
SHINGANE: core steel , softer steel
SHIN-GUNTO: New military sword ( seen during WW2)
SHINKEN: a real sword, sharp and cutting worthy
SHINOGI: blade ridge that divides the Shinogi-ji from the Ji
SHINOGI-ZUKURI: a sword that has a Shinogi that runs though it, most common sword construction
SHINSA: Sword appraisal / judging of a blade by highly regarded judges
SHINSAKUTO: Newly made swords post 1953AD
SHINSHINTO: period that spanned roughly from 1764AD to 1868AD (New new sword)
SHINTO: period that spanned roughly from 1596AD to 1763AD (New sword)
SHIRASAYA: wood scabbard/ sheath for storage and protection of a blade
SHITODOME: small oval like metal fittings at the mouth of the kurigata
SHO: small
SHOBU-ZUKURI: sword construction without a Yokote to divide the kissaki
SHODAI: 1st generation
SHOWATO: swords made during Showa period
SHU-MEI: signature/ inscription in red lacquer
SORI: curvature of a sword
SOSHU: Famous forging region of the original Gokagen (1 of the 5 traditions)
SUDAREBA: hamon that resembles bamboo blinds
SUE: late (often used in reference to later works of schools)
SUGATA: Shape of a sword
SUGUHA: straight hamon
SUGUHA-HOTSURE: straight hamon with lines of nie which stray away from the hamon
SUKASHI: openings in the face of a fitting
SUN: form of Japanese measurement, 1 sun measuring 3.03 cm
SUNAGASHI: brushed sandy texture of Nie in the hamon
SURIAGE: shortening of a blade by removing a portion of the tang

TACHI: long sword commonly seen during koto era where the cutting edge is worn facing downward
TACHI MEI: signature on the omote side when the cutting edge is facing downward
TAIKEN: one who is armed with a sword
TAKANOHA-YASURIME: hawk feather file marks on the Tang
TAMAHAGANE: quality steel used to make traditionally made swords
TAMESHIGIRI: test cutting performed using a sword
TAMESHI-MEI: test cut record inscription on the tang, sometimes in gold or silver
TANTO: Shortest of the 3 sized swords, under 30cm
TATARA: Traditional Japanese furnace that a swordsmith uses to forge a sword
TATEWARE: forging fissures along the Ji
TO: sword
TOBIYAKI: hamon spots that is separated above from the main hamon
TOGARI: Pointed hamon
TOGI: polish
TOGISHI: sword polisher
TOKO: swordsmith
TOKUBETSU HOZON: ranking of paperwork issued by the NBTHK
TOKUBETSU JUYO: highest ranking paperwork issued by the NBTHK
TORANBA: high aggressive like wave hamon
TORI_ZORI: blade with the strongest curvature on the middle
TOROKUSHO: Japanese sword registration
TOSOGU: sword fitting, tsuba inclusive
TSUBA: sword guard
TSUCHIOKI: application of clay coating for the forming of the hamon
TSUKA: sword handle that covers the tang
TSUKA-ITO: wrapping of the tsuka
TSUKAMAKI: process of wrapping the tsuka
TSUNAGI: wood blade used to hold together the fittings when the actual iron blade is stored in Shirasaya
TSURUGI: ancient double edge sword

UBU: original/unaltered ( can be applied to original Nakago, grooves, & cutting edge)
UCHIGATANA: another term for katana
UCHIKO: finely ground polishing stone wrapped in cloth, used to remove dirt or gunk that settles on a sword (it is abrasive, today it is recommended not to use so often)
UCHINOKE: Crescent moon shaped Nijuba seen on the hamon
UCHIZORI: Inward curved sori
UDENUKI-ANA: small holes seen on sword guards to pass lacing so the blade doesn’t slide out of the saya
UMABARI: A horse needle somewhat similar in size to a Kogai
UMEGANE: pieces of steel used to plug fukure flaws
URA: side of the tang facing the body
Utsuri misty like reflection found along the Ji or above
UTSUSHIMONO: Copies of works from famous smiths

WAKIMONO: works from side schools that originated from the Gokaden
WAKIZASHI: Medium sized sword, cutting edge above 30.3 cm and below 60.6 cm in length
WARE: openings or cracks in a sword, form of imperfections in the forging process
WARI-KOGAI: kogai that splits in two to form chopsticks
WAZAMONO: Sharp swords, 4th ranking for sharpness

YAGIRI: Arrow head
YAKIBA: Hardened area of the blade which consists of the hamon
YAKIDASHI: Hamon beginning at the machi
YAKIIRE: Quenching of a sword during the forging process
YAKI_OTOSHI: hamon than ends before the Machi
YAMASHIRO: Famous forging region of the original Gokagen (1 of the 5 traditions)
YAMATO: Famous forging region of the original Gokagen (1 of the 5 traditions)
YANONE: Arrow head
YARI: Spear, forged like a sword with a tempered edge
YASURIME: File marks on the tang, finishing portion of the forging process and styles varied from school to smith
YOKOTE: Line dividing the kissaki from the rest of the blade
YOROI: Japanese Samurai’s armor
YOROI-DOSHI: an armor piercing tanto
YOTSU-DO: 4 body cutting

ZAIMEI: signed, sword with a Mei
ZOGAN: inlay
ZURYO-MEI: smiths signature that includes an Honorary title (Daijo, Kami, etc.)